A pre-sentence report is a document prepared by a probation officer or a similar designated authority in the criminal justice system. It provides information to the court to assist in determining an appropriate sentence for an individual who has been convicted of a crime.
A preliminary hearing, also known as a preliminary inquiry, is conducted to determine whether there is enough evidence to proceed to trial. The purpose of a preliminary hearing is to provide a safeguard against unfounded prosecutions and to protect the accused from unnecessary trials.
The appeal process in Canada exists to allow a trial decision to be reviewed by a higher-level court to ensure the decision was legally correct and to prevent injustices.